Following the traditions of Download, there was a holiday on every Friday…the holy month of Ramadan was held in great esteem. There was a ban on selling wine and the preaching of Christianity was prohibited within the boundaries of the State, there was not even a single Church or missionary school…All the criminal and civil cases were decided according to Shariah….
We cannot compromise over these principles. This movement lost its strength when the Prince Saeedur Rasheed announced his decision to abandon the struggle due to the defeat of Pakistan in East Pakistan and the subsequent crisis. However, the Nawab family did not lose its control over the power structure of the region. The role of the Abbasi family in the politics of Bahawalpur and that played by many other feudal rulers in the power structure of the Siraiki region underlines their tendency to manipulate religion, the Muslim identity of Pakistan, as a justification of their control over their respective areas.
II The slogans and symbols of Islam, the Muslim punjab and the Islamic state as a source of legitimization by the landlords were challenged by the local intelligentsia and politicians by constructing a separate identity or mobilizing the existing identities around a separate language. The same language is also in use in the districts of upper Sindh, like Jacobabad, Sukkur and Khairpur, besides the Merri-Bughti areas and Kachhi district in Balochistan.
Zatain H Nadiem, in the Portrait ofSindh, refers to the traditional division of Sindh into three parts, that is, Lar, which consists of southern Sindh; Wicholo, which is central Sindh, the area around Hyderabad; and Uttar or Sirro, which comprises the areas of northern Sindh. However, Mushtaqur Rahman, a Cultural Geographer, gives a racial interpretation of this word.
According to him, the races that migrated from the present Punjab to Sindh, mainly Jat, Rajput and Baloch, were called Siraiki by the Sindhis. Denzil Ibbetson, in his Punjab Castesis of the view that it is almost impossible to differentiate between the Jat and the Rajput in Lower Punjab the present Siraiki belt but that there is no such problem in Upper Punjab. Both identities are download closely intertwined with one zatain that they appear to comprise the same entity in Lower Punjab.
Similar is the example of the Jats. Their migration pattern shows that they came to Lower Punjab from Sindh and then migrated to Upper Punjab. The word Jat means camel grazers, which was considered an insult by the Jet especially those in the Rawalpindi Division39 who, with the passage of time, began to assert their separate identity.
There are, therefore, two different types of identity markers that were used for the people of Lower Punjab. They were either defined by their kinship Jat, Baloch, and others in Upper Punjab zatain as the Siraiki people of the north in Sindh. The Siraikis had download linguistic-cultural characteristics that made them distinguishable. But we have seen earlier that the people of Upper Punjab identified immigrants from Lower Punjab by their race and not by their linguistic and regional identity.
Even here, race became the prime identity marker. Archaeological research has uncovered the existence of a civilization centuries pdf Christ, which ended partly due to the change in the rivers' course and partly due to the invasions from Iran and Afghanistan. Multan appears to be the only region in the present Siraiki belt, which shows a continuity and growth in local linguistic and cultural traditions. Many historical accounts reveal the antiquity, economic affluence, and cultural resilience of Multan, which remained the capital of Sindh for sometime.
Gankovsky believes that the races of Southern Punjab came from the intermingling of the races in Sindh and Upper Punjab and, therefore, possess the linguistic and cultural qualities of both regions. Like Khuro, he also terms the language spoken in Upper Sindh as Siraiki. This is why Siraiki linguists seldom treat their language as being closer to Sindhi as compared to Punjabi. Pdf the architecture was copied not pdf in Sindh but also in other parts of the subcontinent,45 The peripheral zones, from Bahawalpur to Sindh and Jhang, Sahiwal, Sargodha, appear to have widely divergent cultures.
Rather, it is related to parts of the upper Sindh. Therefor, we may conclude that Siraiki was a fragile linguistic and cultural identity unrelated to Multan or its people in terms of language or culture. Coined by the Sindhis to identify immigrants and those living punjab Upper Sindh, it was never accepted in Lower Punjab.
The people and the language in the region were identified by their locally constructed identities. The present sense of Siraiki as a cultural punjab began to take root in the s.
Since both these groups of settlers were alien to the region, they were obviously outnumbered by the locals. With a distinct sense of superiority, they called the locals dhagga crude ,munafiq duplicitousand so on and the locals called them panahger asylum-seekers in turn. Among some Muhajirs, local Siraiki speaking people were stamped as hypocritical munafiq. While local proverbs and jokes reflect this undercurrent of hostility, the relationship between the locals and the two sets of settlers, the Zatain and Punjabi speaking minorities, was apparently not hostile due to the vertical relationship between the two.
Besides, the local population had to depend on the goodwill of the settlers for economic reasons. Till the s, the settlers became a significant factor in determining the results in elections. No one could win a seat in consecutive elections download the provincial and national assemblies except on few seats like that of the Daultana in Ludden, District Vehari, Abbasi family in Bahawalpur region against the feudal lords of this region, who were undisputed authorities in their respective constituencies.
Collection Collection. Creator Creator. Language Language. Topic: C-DAC. Book digitized by Google from the library of the University of Michigan and uploaded to the Internet Archive by user pdf. Dekhi Ja Dunia Dy Punjab. Gautam Sharmaa.
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Gautam Sharmaa dc. Punjab Mission. Ludhiana Station; Janvier, Levi, An open access Punjabi Literary magazine. Topic: magazine. Brahm Jagdish Singh; Prof.Mata ke Navratri Bhajan Durga Mata bhajan - legacysolution.co
Rajbir Kaur. Namdhari Nitnem Topics: Namdhari, Nitnem, Bhrigu Sangta Topics: Bhrigu, Sangta. Inhe began to publish a magazine, Pakhtull, which laid great emphasis on the distinct cultural and linguistic identity of the Pakhtun. The magazine severely criticized the British schooling system in the region which was introducing alien values among the locals, who were asked to use Pashto in their day-to-day affairs. AfterGhaffar Khan suggested a confederation with Pakistan of the 'six settled districts of the North-West Frontier Province that may wish to join the new state of their own will'.
After merger into One-Unit, the Pakhtun expressed bitter sentiments against the centre and the Zatain province. The National Awami Party actively furthered the cause of Pakhtun throughout the decade of the s, but in s when it formed a coalition government with the Jamait Ulema-i-Islam, the Pakhtun cause became a secondary issue. In pdf s, the NAP again raised the issue of Pakhtunistan, but in the 90s, after the Afghan war, the Punjab leadership gave up the idea of unified Pakhtun state probably due to civil war and internal economic instability in Afghanistan.
The demand for a name to their province and for greater provincial autonomy is still an download in regional politics. Frustrated voices began to be raised in these areas against the discriminatory policies of successive governments.
This led to the partly organized struggle for regional autonomy in the Siraiki speaking region of southem Punjab. In the succeeding chapters, I will try to examine the construction of Siraiki identity and download dynamics of this movement with kii reference to the impact of state policies on the emergence of ethnic politics and demand for regional autonomy. The aim is not to critique regional identity formation but to study it in historical perspective and recent developments. I solely own all mistakes, errors and shortcomings in the book and hope this small step of writing on the dwnload of southem Punjab and the construction of ethnic identities in the Siraiki speaking region will help in further discussion and research on this part of the country.
Hamza Alvi. Sociology of Developing Societies: South Asia, Pakistan Progressive, Vol. Education and Culture Karachi' These ik based on evolutionism. Pierre Dowwnload den Berghe. This concept explains the effects of altruistic behaviour in reducing individual fitness the genetic transmission to the next generation and. This favouring of kin over non-kin is known as "kin-selection" zataun "nepotism". See for an overview. Ailllia-e-Tariekh Lahore: p. II Ibid. Mughal Derbar Lahore: p.
Allllia-e-Tariekh Lahore: p, Tariekh 4 Lahore: p. Aurangzeb Dara Shikoh I. Orthodox, pdf Islam. Syncretic, eclectic Islam. Discouraged art music, dancing, etc. Outward dkwnload of orthodoxy: rejected Kept constant company with the S"I. Prahhu", the Sanskrit for god. Favourite reading Quran, AI-Ghazzali. Favourite reading: mystics. Wished Muslim society to revert punjab Wished to expand boundaries of Muslim orthodox mould thus drawing boundaries.
Source-Akbar S Ahmad, Pakistan. Sir John Seeley, the British historian, concluded that 'India can downlkad be said to have been zatain quered at all by the foreigners. Ii has download conquered herself'. The example of Siraiki people can be pdf here, 'who supported the East India Company due to their resentment and hatred against the Sikh rule over their areas'.
Before European takeover, she was 'exporting to England cotton goods, silks, spices, sugar, indigo, lead, quicksilver and saltpeter. The balance of trade was heavily in favour of India, amounting to almost about 1. According to Burke and Quraishi, Mughal India was 'one of the richest countries in the world, but in the immediately - following British period it became one of the poorest'. A year later, law was passed which, 'prohibited the wear and use of Indian silks and calicoes, painted, stained or dyed in India, under the plenty of five pound for each offence on each wearer and of 20 pounds on the seller The weavers were obliged to work against their will at whatever prices were arbitrarily imposed on them.
When the weavers resisted, a punjav of physical torture was introduced. The control under which the weaver population was held was not only a matter of practice but it was legalized by regulations", See for details. And also see. Harnza Alvi. Pakistan Pakistan 7 6 6 3 2 I Source Tables Zatain by Tahir Kamran. Sindh from Mumbai on the demand of political parties can be quoted here. It is zataiin claimed by Siraiki activists that the British government was planning to separate 'thc Siraiki rcgion' from rest of the Punjab.
Quoted from Khalid bin Sayced. Politics in Zattain NY: p. The poor man pays blackmail for his cattle to these local chieftains and for his soul to his pir. Pdff a few exceptions. Both in Muzaffargarh and Dera Ghazi Khan, with the exception of about 5 per cent who did not oppress their tenants, landlords werc described as "all throat stranglers". In Mianwali most of the landlords were "tyrants".
The landlords in the District of Jhang and in some parts of Multan "were most powerful than officers, they inspired each fears in their tenants that they could take from them what service they pleased. Language and Politics in Pakistlln Karachi: p. Language and Politics in Downloac Karachi: 20 0 p. According to Tariq Rahman. Wellesley wrote in a punjab ' the college of vernacular cducation must stand-or thc Empire must fall'.
The British officers, who represented the government for common people. The example of Col. David Lorimer. See for details. Tariq Rahman. Lallguage alld Politics in Pakistan Karachi: p. The Muslims of UP were the descendants of the Mughal adminis- trators who were governing India at the time of British conquest. Urdu was the raison d'etre. Tariq Rahman writes: punjzb a symhol, it Urdu was invested with so much emotion that it was salient.
The non- Urdu speaking Muslims of Dosnload however choose it primarily for instrumental ones. For them after Islam. Thus, by the time of partition, Urdu was an important part of Muslim separatism in South Asia". Language and Politics in Pakistan Karachi: downlad. Tariekh kia kehti IllIi Lahore: p. The Sole Spokesman Lahore: p, 5. Sharif al Mujahid writes about Jinnah's leadership phenomenon: 'Leaders called upon to lead nationalist coalitions covering a wide sownload of political opinion are bound to be a little vague as to the full implication of their goals.
Quoted from Pandev Nayak ed. Paki- stan Society and Politics Dehli: p. In See for details, Ayesha Jalal. Politics in Pakistall N. See also. Ayesha JalaI.
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Mubarak Ali, Tariekh kia kehti Iwi Lahore: p. Alvi believes that the League's success was download to national- ist movement launched by the Indian National Congress. Jinnah, heing the Quaid-i-Azem. Jinnah was too sick to handle thc day-to-day affairs zatain the country. Under the cover of the Governor General. During his premiership. Liaquat Ali Khan also relied on the bureaucratic setup and his secre- tary used to order on his behal f.
It also repealed the PRaDA legislation In real sense it had provided Civil Servants with considerable regulatory power over the conduct of political leaders. The response of the Civil Service was swifl. The Governor General dissolved the Constituent Assembly'. Umer Noman. By saying this I do not mean to imply that you should not take an intelligent interest in the affairs of your country. In fact, as citizens of Pakistan you must do that.
As I said before, you are servants of Pakistan and as such, the servants of any party that the people put in power'. On another occasion, he declared: pdf always told my people that Army's major task is to give cover pdf the country behind which it could built a sound democratic system and lay the foundation of a stable future'. Hasan Askari. The Military and Politics in Pakistan Lahore p. General Ayub also refused Ghulam Muhammad when the latter invited him to step in.
Its personnel were also involved in providing humanitarian assistance to the incoming refugees. The civilian govern- ments continued to rely on the military in thc subsequent period for the mainte- nance of punjab and order and for coping with natural calamities. The military also made a significant contribution to the developmental work in the form of anti-salinity drive.
Punjab activi- ties in the civilian domain helped to build the image of the military, and adversely affected the reputation of the civilian government. The military began to be viewed at the common man level as a resourceful organization capable of salvaging the situation when the civilian leaders were unable to manage it'. The Military and Politics in Pakisllln Lahore p. The military estab- lishment in Pakistan, which was zatain desperate need of new weapons. This close collaboration between Rawalpindi and Pentagon dcveloped in isolation to the internal political affairs of the country.
Sec for details. The elections, there- fore, were neither in favour of strong military-bureaucracy oligarchy nor Ameri- can interests. According to Finer's categorization. According to him, influence is per- fectly legitimate and constitutional method of download the rulers to accept their point of view.
This is done through persuasion. When the military leader threatens to use some sanctions, i. Displace- ment of one civil government or supplantment of civil regimes is achieved by threats to revolt, refusal to defend the government against its foes and refusal to defend the government against civil disorder. The supplantment of civil govern- ment can also take place through military takeover with or without violence, commonly known as coup.
Download latter mode of intervention is very common in the new nations. The military has, therefore, become 'crucial institution and power block'. In many new nation coup succeed because the public is relatively narrow pdf is weakly organized, the public attachment to their political institu- tions is so fragile that they hardly punjab the legitimacy of the takeover'.
The post-Zia democracy, depicts the first three levels of intervention while the three coups by Ayub Khan, Ziaul Haq zatain Pervaiz Musharraf are similar to the third level of intervention. Chapter 1 Siraiki Wasseib The Siraiki belt in southern Punjab situated on the upper fringe of Sindh, is considered to be one of the most ancient inhabited lands of Pakistan by many researchers working on the Indus Valley civilization.
The area and population of this region is more than the rest of the Punjab see table 1. According to the definition advocated by Siraiki ethno- nationalists, it incorporates four divisions, i. TABLE 1. Dera Ismael Khan. The figures of are takcn from Pre Investment Reports of Jhang. Bhakkar, Vehari. Layyah and Bahwalnagar. I Different explanations have been given to describe the origin of word "Siraiki" and the Siraiki language.
According to one source, it came from a Sindhi word "Sirro", which means "of the north". Ihsan contends that the word "Siraiki" originated from this region. Considering this explanation, the word "Siraiki" seems to have its origin in Sindh rather than in the presently defined Siraiki belt. According to him, the races that migrated from the present Punjab to Sindh, mainly Jat, Rajput and Baloch, were called Siraiki by the Sindhis. Ihsan, in the Portrait of Sindh.
Denzil Ibbetsona noted British ethnographer and Lieutenant Governor of the Punjab, in his Punjab Castesis of the opinion that it is almost impossible to differentiate between the Jat and Rajput in lower Punjab present Siraiki beltbut there is no such a problem in upper Punjab. Both identities are so closely intermingled with each other that they appear to comprise the same entity in lower Punjab. Now take the example of the Jat.
Their migration pattern shows that they came to lower Punjab from Sindh, and then migrated to upper Punjab. Those Jat immigrants who settled in upper Punjab began to call themselves 'Jet',12 which was probably corrupted due to the jerky style of speaking in upper Punjab. The word "Jat" remained in currency in lower Punjab in the soft spoken Jatki dialect 13 of the local population.Mein Labhan Challi. Anjum Qureshi. Athroo Aap Daleelan. JAVED ARIF. Baghan De Wichkar. Munawar Ahmad Kanday. Baalan Layee Kahanian. PROF. SAEED AHMED. May 02, · We offer text books of all classes from kachi to intermediate in high quality pdf format. Books of every subject i.e Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Biology, Urdu, English, Islamyat, Pak studies are available here. As mentioned earlier, text books are in pdf format which you can easily watch or download. Jun 24, · Free download and read online Punjab Ka Muqadma #Punjab_Ka_Muqadma_ written by Muhammad Hanif legacysolution.co uploaded this book category of this book is Urdu Novels legacysolution.co of Punjab Ka Muqadma is PDF and file size of this pdf file is MB and this book has pages Punjab Ka Muqadma has been downloaded 8, times.
The word Jat means camel grazers, which was considered an insult by the Jet especially those in the Rawalpindi Division 14 who with the passage of time began to assert their separate identity. Hence the Jet and others constructed "Jat" as an inferior identity. There are, therefore, two different types of identity markers for the people of lower Punjab who were either recognized by their punjab Jat, Baloch, etc. It is difficult to assess how the Sindhis may have viewed the Siraikis, whether as people with a definite language and culture or as an identityless stock who were constructed as "others".
The Siraikis had some linguistic-cultural characteristics which made them distinguishable, but we have seen earlier that the people of upper Punjab identified immigrants from lower Punjab by their race and not by their linguistic and regional identity. Even here, race became the prime identity marker. Why these people were either identified by race in upper Punjab and called people "of the north" in Sindh remains a moot question.
Ztaain research conducted by different teams points to the civilization that flourished in the centuries before Christ which punjjab believed to have vanished partly due to pdf change in the course of the rivers and partly due to the invasions from Iran and Afghanistan. Multan appears to be the only region in the present Siraiki belt which shows a continuity and growth in local linguistic and cultural traditions. Many historical accounts reveal the antiquity, economic affluence, and cultural resiliency of Multan, which remained the capital of Sindh for sometime.
Many historians agree that in the times of Alexander, "Mali-us-than" was the old name of Multan. Gankovsky considers the races of southern Punjab came from the intermingling of the races in Sindh and upper Punjab, hence, he holds, they possess the linguistic and cultural qualities of punjzb regions. Like Diwnload, he also terms the language spoken in upper Sindh as Siraiki. That's why Siraiki linguists seldom treat their language as being closer to Sindhi as compared to Punjabi.
The word "Siraiki", therefore, may have nothing to do with the region presently known as southern Punjab, rather, it is related to parts of upper Zataln, as also noted by Dr Dani, who termed it a corruption of Sauvira or Sauviraki, a province between the region of present Bahawalpur and upper Sindh. We may conclude that Siraiki was a fragile linguistic and cultural identity which was not related to Multan or download people in terms of language or culture. It was coined by the Sindhis to identify immigrants and those living in upper Sindh since the word Siraiki was prevalent in Sindh, but was never accepted in lower Punjab.
The people and language were identified by locally constructed identities. When Ucch became the centre of the Sufis and the ulia, the locals began to assert their identity as "Uchi". Similarly, when Bahawalpur became a state, the locals began to call themselves Bahawalpuri and their language was punjab "Riasti". The language spoken in Multan was known zatain "Multani". The present sense of Siraiki as a punjab identity began to take root in the Is.
With the designing of the canal system zatain the British rulers, the people from upper Punjab were offered incentives by the State of Bahawalpur to migrate to cultivate the lands. I will use the word "Abadkar" for the Punjabi speaking settlers so as to distinguish them from the Punjabi speaking people of upper Punjab. In order to encourage cultivation in the region, the British government and the Nawab of Bahawalpur encouraged these Abadkar by allotting them large land-holdings.
Punjab the Abadkar were economically and educationally stronger to the illiterate and extremely poor local population, they never made an effort to assimilate in the local culture. Instead, they kept their link to their birthplaces, both ideologically and due to their blood relation in upper Punjab. Within a few decades, the Abadkar became an affluent and politically effective force in the Siraiki region. Since the subcontinent zatain been divided along religious lines, the Muslim immigrants were called "Muhajir"- the Islamic word for people 'who leave a place to seek sanctuary or freedom from persecution or freedom of religion or any other just purpose'.
Lands were allotted to them and, consciously or unconsciously, the settlers preferred to establish either independent businesses or cultivate their own land. If they ventured out at all, it was to get jobs in the state machinery. Soon, they became influential in the region and punjab not dependent upon the local population for their economic needs. Since both these groups of settlers were alien to the region, they were obviously outclassed by the locals in number.
It was only the "convergence of interest" that brought them close to one other. With a distinct sense of superiority they called the locals dhagga crudedowmload duplicitousetc. Among some Muhajir, local Siraiki speaking people were stamped as hypocritical munafiq. The local population had to depend on the goodwill of the settlers for economic reasons.
Till the Is, the settlers were so powerful that in any electoral exercise their vote download the decisi ve factor. Amongst feudal lords of this region who were undisputed authorities in their respective constituencies, no one could win his seat in consecutive elections punjxb the provincial and national assemblies except on few seats like that of the Daultana in Ludden, District Vehari. By the Is, local intellectuals started questioning the political and economic control of the settlers over their region.
For the first time in the Is, the word pdf was employed by the linguists and literary figures of southern Punjab. The same language is also in use in the districts of upper Sindh, like Jacobabad, Sukkur and Khairpur, besides the Merri-Bughti areas and Kachhi district in BalochistanY The users of this language are also scattered throughout India, where alternative names of "Multani" and "Thaii" are used for it.
Like their neighbours, Indian Multani speaking people zatain mainly Hanafite Muslims and their numbers are estimated to be 23 in the year25 in. Khushab Mianwali. II The political boundaries of the present Siraiki belt have changed under different rulers. Before the Arab invasion, the region was zatain by the Brahman dynasty which, according to the Arab author of Majma-i- Waridat, had reigned Sindh for two thousand years.
In the extreme north was the province ofMultan, bordered by Kashmir. Brahmapur, Kahror, and Ashahar were the important cities of the province of Multan. KingdomofMu-lo-an-pu-lu' by 'leaving the right bank of the Indus'. When the Arabs captured Sindh, Multan became their important military outpost. For the next three centuries, there is no record of any war or confrontation in this region.
The areas located above the district of Multan were controlled by Hindu rulers. Similarly, the northern Sahi dynasties were busy in pdf the Muslim rulers of Kandahar and Kabul. It appears that the Muslim administrators of Multan never interfered in the religious matters of the locals, except during invasions when temples were pillaged. The Governor, who was from the family of Quriesh, zatwin to reside in the cantonment located a few miles away from the city.
By the end of the tenth century, Multan was taken over by the Ismaili sect. Lodhi Pathan, who were controlling the areas between Peshawar and Multan and were ztaain in a confrontation with Mahmood Ghaznavi, became strong punnab of the Karmatian download it provided them opportunity to profess their doctrine in Multan and its vicinity. A historic Hindu temple was demolished and the mosque constructed by Muhammad-bin-Qasim was abandoned.
However, the two-hundred-years-old rule of the Ismaili sect ended with the invasions of Muhammad Ghouri. Whether these were sectarian wars or fueled by the personal ambition of kings, the region had to face the drastic consequences with its economy almost wholly destroyed and the area nearly deserted. The apparent peace of three centuries was followed by rapid zatani from western and Central Asia. The stage was set by the Mongol under the command of Changiz Khan. Like other loosely held provinces, Multan also had nominal allegiance with the Sultans of Dehli.
Kubacha's rule extended over the region of Download and Sindhu probably Sindhwhile the Langha established their control over Multan and its nearby areas. We may also notice Syed Khizar Khan who, incaptured Delhi and laid down the foundation of the Syed Dynasty which survived for thirty-eight years. Some passages in the poems of Amir Khusrua give the impression that the Mongol impressed the Indian Muslims neither with their appearance nor with their manners.
He writes: There were more than a thousand infidels and warriors of other tribes, riding on camels, great commanders in battle, all with steel- like bodies clothed in cotton; with faces like fire, with caps pdf sheepskin, with their heads shorn. Their eyes were so narrow lunjab piercing that they might have bored a hole in a brazen vessel. Their stink was more horrible than their colour. Their faces were set on their faces as they zatajn no necks. Their cheeks resemble soft leather bottles, full of wrinkles and knots.
Their noses extended from cheek to cheek, and their mouths from cheek-bone to zatainn. Their moustaches were of extravagant length. They had but scanty beards about their chins. Their chests of a colour half black, half white are so covered with lice that they looked like sesame growing on a bad soil. Their whole body indeed was covered with these insects, and their skin was rough and grainy as shagreen leather, fit only to be converted into shoes.
They devoured dogs and pigs with their nasty teeth. The Mongol began to settle in Iran, Afghanistan and the Indian subcontinent, which gradually removed the element of estrangement between the settlers and the locals. More often than not, Multan had to face the dire consequences of being the barrier against these western invasions which are recorded ten in number between the years AD. The economy of the region was probably the worst effected, based on cultivation and centred around the river rain lands.
Multan was also a punmab commercial route, which remained an important factor in its survival. It was during this period that ancestors of present tribes and biradarian began to arrive here in the form of punjaab and formed their colonies in various parts of this region. According to the Gazetteer of the Multan District, except the Langha who are mainly Balochand their allied Baloch downloadd, almost every tribe traces its arrival not before the fifteenth century.
Many devout spiritual leaders came here and spread Islam in the region. Sheikh Bahauddin Zakariya, a famous saint buried in Multan, also belongs to downlpad family. Their teachings of tolerance, love, and equality familiarized the locals with the essence of Islam, who probably found mental and spiritual satisfaction that had perhaps vanished due to the prolonged plundering and bloodshed seen in this region. Shah Rukn- i-Alam was buried in an emperor's tomb and, from this point onwards, the tradition of making shrines of pious men became a unique architectural tradition of Multan.
In contemporary documents and coins, Multan was given the title of "Dar-ul-aman" the seat of safety Between tono major war broke out in this region, which attracted zatqin from all over north-western India to Multan. In the times of Shah Jahan, according to the Gazetteer afthe Multall District, the rate of immigration shows considerable increase zwtain due to the prosperity of the region. Although the cultivated area of southern Punjab was limited to river rain lands, and the provincial revenue, according to British records, 'do not indicate any very pdf development',40 there must have been trade and commerce of some significance, which propelled immigrants to settle here.
Since the Mughals were on good terms with the Persian kings, official protection was provided to the trade routes, fortifying Multan protection as the important route to Iran. The city zatian importance when Multan was made the capital of a province that download over south-western Punjab and included all of Sindh. In the times of the later Mughals when anarchy reigned over India, this city remained comparatively peaceful.
The reason for this appears to be the change of route by invading armies, who preferred to attack Dehli via Lahore rather than over the dry routes of Multan.
According to the Gazetteer of the M ultall District, the invasions by Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali did not create any pdff damage, who passed through the region with only minor skirmishes. For most of the time, this control was nominal and tenuous, but the local Pathan tribes continued to rule the region. When Sadozai, an immigrant Pathan tribe of Kabul, seized power a significant increase in the immigration of Pathan families from Afghanistan to this area is observed.
However, punjab tehsil of Mailsi and the district of Lodhran were controlled by the Daudputra Abbasi Nawah of Bahawalpur, which were taken over by zatain Sikh in This independent kingdom of the Sadozai gave vast lands to the Pathan soldiers and town-people of Babar, Tarin, Khakwani, Bamozai and Badozai tribes. Its strength could be increased up to 12 soldiers. They apparently left behind most characteristics of their downloda.
The conquerors plundered Multan and Kabirwala, and the impact of atrocities committed by them was felt for a long time in the region. Edwardes, who saw downolad the spectacles of his friends. He could not to tolerate a gentleman. A low bred man himself. Rich merchants he loved and called around him, for they earned their money doownload he did himself; but dwonload wealth he regarded as contraband, a thing to be seized and confiscated whenever found.
Thus the same man who would lend money to a Jat to buy a plough or dig a well, would keep a Multani Pathan out of his estate and think he did God a service. Between the poor he did justice with great pains and impartiality; but a rich download, even ifin the right, never got a verdict from Sawan Mal without paying for it'. Sawan Mal was succeeded by his son Mulraj. It was during his reign that some British officials were murdered in the area, the incident leading to the series ztaain attacks on Multan city, and to the extension upnjab the British Raj to Multan.
In this campaign, the Daudputra Nawab of Bahawalpur and the Path an of Multan provided assistance to the British army.
After the British annexation of "Sikh Punjab", when Multan and its nearby areas were made part of the province, almost half of the Siraiki region remained detached from the rest of the Punjab as pdf sovereign princely State of Bahawalpur. Founded in Bahawalpur remained independent tillwhen it was annexed to the newly born State of Pakistan. III Siraiki dpf had by now evolved into a language, seems to have evolved with the interaction between the linguistically different tribes e.
Here we will try to see the process of punjab or fragmentation of these peoples, and their role in the construction of the present cultural complexity of the region, especially with reference to the Syed and the Qurieshi. To date, the Syed and Qurieshi are highly zatain tribes by the local population. Different explanations have been given to explicate the reasons for this.
According to Denzil Ibbetson, the strong caste system of Hinduism developed the tendency of paying respect to high-caste Brahman, so even when the locals converted to Islam they replaced the Syed and Qurieshi zatainn an equivalent to the Download.